Angels could be described as discarnated persons that have an interest in the welfare of someone else in the physical world, and can be called upon for guidance and healing. They have physical bodies that are not of flesh and blood but are rather of a metaphysical or “spiritual” nature. They are usually not visible for human beings, but with much effort they would be able to show themselves as a shimmering, translucent form. Angels are mentioned in the Old and New Testament of the Bible, the Tanakh and the Qu’ran. They are often described by scribes as non-physical beings who can assume a humanlike body that could appear like a shining and flickering fire.
Eloah (or Eloha) is the singular form of the plural word “Elohim”, and would translate to “God”, or “Godly being”. It had been used in the Tanakh and the Bible, especially in the more poetic chapters; At six places it is used to describe “pagan” gods (like in Chronicles 32:15 and Daniel 11:37-8), though in the most cases it is used to refer to the “God of Israel”, known in the Tanakh as Yaweh (YHWH) and Jehova (JHVH) in the English and Greek Bible. Eloah also doesn’t specifically refers to a male being because this word is both male and female in the language of Old Hebrew.
The story from the Biblical book Exodus also strongly suggests that the old Israelites were familiar with more gods besides the God of Israel. They actually sung the following during the crossing of the Red Sea (Exodus 15:11):
“Who is like you, O LORD, among the gods?
Who is like you, majestic in holiness,
awesome in glorious deeds, doing wonders?” – Exodus 15:11
The Mesopotamian Dieties
By comparing the texts of the book of Genesis, like the stories of the sons of God, the Deluge and the confusion of tongues (the Tower of Babel story), with the Mesopotamian myths, one should note these stories are not only very similar but also that there is the mention of multiple gods instead of one. The ancient Mesopotamian people knew, like the old Greeks, a whole pantheon of various dieties where each of one had his/her own place within the hierarchy. Like the Greek gods, the Mesopotamian dieties were not seen as the creators of the world but as the almighty rulers of a world which was already in existence.
Today many researchers believe that the mythical gods were invented by man himself. This is because scientific conclusions are often based on tangible evidence, but how can one find evidence for beings that were not physical by definition? Many writings and other testimonials of various ancient cultures share a similar basis where a certain chief god commands a pantheon of “lower” gods (or angels): a certain small seperate group group of individuals here on earth who – to the more simple human beings – seemed to have supernatural powers and actively influenced mankind, animals and the rest of nature. Apparently, who they really were had never been fully explained and it is probable that ancient man also would not had been able to fully comprehend this. (Enoch’s writings about his visitations to the various “heavens” under the guidance of angels actually raises more questions than answers because of his limited frame of reference.) From his written dialogues, it is evident that the Old Greek philosopher Plato considered the stories about the Greek gods seriously because part of his philosophy was about them.
The Mesopotamian gods existed of gods of the earth which were known as the “Anunnaki in Sumerian and the “Anunna” in Akkadian cultures, who were also called the “fifty great gods”, and the gods of the sky or the heavens: the “Igigi”, who were the so-called: “lesser gods”. At times the names of Anunnaki and Igigi were used synonymously, what could mean that the Igigi were actually part of the Anunnaki. In the Babylonian myth of creation; the “Enuma Elish”, the god Marduk (who triumped over his father Enlil) divided the Anunnaki and assigned them to their proper stations; three hundred in heaven and three hundred on the earth. This also gives an impression of the number of “gods” or that would have been present on and nearby earth.
Enki and Enlil actually share similarities with the Greek gods Poseidon and Zeus; They also were brothers with leading roles, whereof Enlil was a chief god like Zeus, and Enki had the watery abyss (the “abzu”) as his domain, like Poseidon was the god of the sea. The chief god Odin from Norse mythology also share common characteristics with the Greek god Zeus, as they both were chief gods and referred to as some kind of father figure. Both Zeus and Yaweh: the Biblical God, would have dwelled in high mountains; Zeus would have dwelled on mount Olympus (the highest mountain in Greece) and it was mt. Sinai (situated in the Sinai mountains in Egypt) where Moses spoke with God. Yahweh, Zeus, Enlil, and also Odin were also likewise depicted as a powerful manly figure with a long (gray or white) beard.
The name “Anunnaki” is generally believed to mean something to the effect of “Those of Royal Blood”
Anu, which is assumed to be the name of the Anunnaki’s supreme god. And the epistemological meaning of Anu is: Lord; leader; king. As a personification of the heaven/sky, his kingdom was “in the expanse of the heavens” Na, is either a verb or an adverb, meaning “to send”. In many Akkadian, Sumerian, Assyrian and Old Babylonian texts and inscriptions, “Na” was written as “Ina”, and meant in, from within, so on and Ki, generally means “earth” in Akkadian and Sumerian, but also means “the underworld”, “the netherworld”, “the world of death”. Maybe they regarded earth sometimes as the “world of death” because everything in the earthly “material word” eventually perishes.
The god Enki (Ea) was also known by the Sumerians as the “ushumgal”, which translates to: “great serpent” or “dragon”, and – in both the Sumerian and Akkadian myths – he planted a great fruit tree in his garden at Eridu which was called the “Mes”-tree and another wonderous tree called the Gishin (Sumerian) or Kiskanu (Akkadian). This is quite similar to the story of Adam and Eve in the Book of Genesis in the Bible where there is a tree of “Knowlegde of Good and Evil” and a tree “of eternal life” and a certain “serpent” who dwelled there.
According to Sumerian mythology, Enki also assisted humanity to survive the Deluge designed to kill them. In the Legend of Atrahasis, Enlil, the king of the gods, sets out to eliminate humanity, the noise of whose mating is offensive to his ears.
He successively sends drought, famine and plague to eliminate humanity, but Enki thwarts his half-brother’s plans by teaching Atrahasis about irrigation, granaries and medicine. Humans again proliferate a fourth time. Enraged, Enlil convenes a Council of Deities and gets them to promise not to tell humankind that he plans their total annihilation.
Enki does not tell Atrahasis, but instead tells the walls of Atrahasis’ (a.k.a. Utnapishtim, Ziusudra, Noah) reed hut of Enlil’s plan, thus covertly rescuing Atrahasis by either instructing him to build some kind of a boat for his family, or by bringing him into the heavens in a magic boat.
After the seven day Deluge, the flood hero frees a swallow, a raven and a dove in an effort to find if the flood waters have receded. On the boat landing, a sacrifice is organised to the gods. Enlil is angry his will has been thwarted yet again, and Enki is named as the culprit. As the god of what we would call ecology, Enki explains that Enlil is unfair to punish the guiltless Atrahasis for the sins of his fellows, and secures a promise that the gods will not eliminate humankind if they practice birth control and live within the means of the natural world – Slaying of Off-spring!
The threat is made, however, that if humans do not honor their side of the coventant the gods will be free to wreak havoc once again.